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Explore the Indian equity market: Key concepts and operation times

The debt and equity market is one of the most significant platforms in the financial industry. A pillar of the world economy, the equity market serves as a marketplace for investors to exchange stocks in businesses, indicating the state of the economy and the success of certain individual companies. 

For investors hoping to create wealth via stock ownership, it is essential to comprehend what an equity market is and how it operates.

Keep reading to learn about how the equity market works, its timing, and holidays.

What is equity in the share market?

People sometimes use the words “stocks” and “equity” alternatively, but if you’re an investor, you need to know the difference.

During a stock listing, such as an initial public offering (IPO), investors are given a particular amount of ownership, or equity, to buy with their stock purchases. Once listed, investors may trade them on the stock exchanges.

An investor’s equity is the monetary worth of their ownership stake in a business. An investor’s holdings in the company are a measure of this. Shareholders may benefit from dividends and capital gains when they own stock. Additionally, shareholders may also be granted the opportunity to vote in corporate elections or other related matters.

What is the equity market?

An equity market is where businesses may raise funds from various investors. Therefore, businesses first issue stocks to the public, who may then buy and sell the stocks for a profit.

The stock market and the equity market are sometimes used alternatively. However, equity markets also include OTC (over-the-counter) trading marketplaces.

As a result, public equities traded on exchanges like BSE and NSE and private stocks sold over the counter make up the equity markets. When it comes to trading, hours, and settlement, the two exchanges are identical.

Types of equity stock market in India

Two kinds of platforms in the equity market, primary and secondary, facilitate structured trading and investing.

  • The primary market is where a company’s IPO takes place. So, the initial public offering (IPO) and investment processes are the only components of this market.

An initial public offering (IPO) is the first step for any business that wants to sell its shares to the general public. In an IPO, the company will offer a portion of its entire equity to the general public to raise funds. After an initial public offering closes, the offered equities are listed on the stock market so investors may buy and sell them.

  • The secondary market is where shares continue to trade after they have been listed on any of the exchanges. In this live equity market, investors may sell their shares and get out of their investments. 

Also, another common thing about the secondary share market is that trades are usually executed through stockbrokers. 

Standard operating procedures for the stock exchange


Fundamentally, trading is the process of buying and selling shares from companies that are listed on a stock exchange. In trading, brokers provide services to traders individually in exchange for fixed fees, and the process is executed using an automated system. 

Managing risks:

Another process linked to equity markets is managing risks. Given the unpredictable nature of the equity market, a thorough risk management framework is essential for preventing fraud on the part of companies while also securing the interests of their investors.

Settlement and clearing:

At the end of the day, all investments and trades that took place during the day are cleared and settled. A stock exchange achieves this via its well-defined settlement period. Such settlements are handled on the T+1 cycle in Indian exchanges, meaning they take place within one day after the trade takes place on a specified day (day 1).

Equity market timing in India

The day at Indian stock exchanges starts with the pre-open session, where order entry and modification are allowed from 9:00 a.m. to 9:08 a.m. 

Pre-open order matching starts right after this window closes. The regular trading session begins with the normal physical market opening at 9:15 a.m. and closing at 3:30 p.m. 

The closing session follows this and lasts from 3:40 to 4:00 p.m.

Additionally, there are dedicated block sessions. The morning window operates from 8:45 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., while the afternoon window is open from 2:05 p.m. to 2:20 p.m.

Equity market holidays

Below is the list of holidays in the Indian equity market for 2024.


The equity market is one of the first places to achieve your financial goals. The process starts with finding a dependable stockbroker to help you make educated decisions. With this foundational knowledge, you’ll be well-equipped to make informed decisions, mitigate risks, and reap the rewards in the long run.


What is the meaning of 2% equity? 

In India, holding 2% equity in a company means owning 2% of the company’s shares. This ownership stake entitles the holder to 2% of the company’s profits and, in some cases, 2% of the voting power on corporate matters. Equity represents a claim on the company’s assets and earnings; thus, if the company grows or increases in value, so does the value of the equity held.

What does 1 crore with 1% equity mean? 

When someone invests 1 crore for 1% equity in a company in India, it implies that the investor is buying a 1% ownership stake in the company for 1 crore rupees. This also sets the company’s post-money valuation at 100 crores, meaning that after the investment, the total value of the company is considered to be 100 crores. This valuation is used to determine the price at which new shares are issued.

What does 20% equity mean?

Owning 20% equity in a company in India signifies that an investor has a 20% share in the ownership of the company. This substantial stake often comes with significant influence over company decisions and a corresponding portion of the company’s profits. In the case of a sale or liquidation, the 20% equity holder would be entitled to 20% of the proceeds after all debts and obligations have been settled.

What is the cash and equity market?

The cash market, also known as the spot market, is where financial instruments like stocks are bought and sold for immediate delivery in India. In contrast, the equity market is where shares of companies are issued and traded, either through exchanges or over-the-counter markets. It includes both the primary market and the secondary market. The equity market provides companies with access to capital in exchange for giving investors a slice of ownership.

What are Nifty and Sensex? 

Nifty and Sensex are stock market indices in India that represent a basket of leading companies listed on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), respectively. The Nifty 50 includes 50 of the largest and most actively traded stocks on the NSE, while the Sensex, or BSE 30, comprises 30 of the largest and most actively traded stocks on the BSE. 

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