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Final Dividend

Dividends are payouts from companies to their shareholders. It signifies a part of the company’s profits. Paying dividends is not compulsory for organizations. But they often do so as a way to reward investors for their support. The dividends can either be in the form of cash or bonus shares. Different types of dividends exist, such as interim, special, regular, and final. This article will focus specifically on the final dividend.

The concept of final dividend

Every type of dividend has a different meaning. So, what is final dividend

After reviewing the company’s financial performance, the Board of directors announces a final dividend. This decision is made during the Annual General Meeting after considering factors like financial stability and liquidity. 

Declaring a dividend doesn’t require any special authorization in the company’s bylaws. Once declared, the dividend cannot be retracted. 

The final dividend is set apart from the company’s net profit after setting aside funds for business operations. Analysts and board members often provide estimates for final dividends. The final declared dividend may also be referred to as a “revised” or “adjusted” dividend.

Companies may not all pay dividends to their shareholders. However, companies that pay dividends regularly often follow established policies. These policies can aim to maintain the same level of dividends over time or gradually increase them year after year.

Calculating the final dividend

The stages for calculating the final dividend of a company are as follows:

  1. Decide the company’s total earnings for the whole fiscal year. It will be shown in the annual financial records of the company. 
  2. Subtract any interim dividends already given out during the year from the total profit. Interim dividends are partial dividend payouts made before the completion of the final reports. 
  3. The Board of managers will suggest a suitable final dividend distribution percentage from the remaining earnings. This proportion is referred to as the dividend distribution ratio. 
  4. After accounting for interim dividends, employ the dividend distribution ratio to the remaining net profit. This shows the complete sum of the eventual dividend. 
  5. To figure out the dividend per share, split the total ultimate dividend sum by the count of outstanding shares. 
  6. The dividend per share and any interim dividends constitute the total dividend for the complete fiscal year. 
  7. The final dividend is then recommended to shareholders for authorization at the AGM before its official declaration and payout.

Primary characteristics of final dividend

Some key characteristics of the final dividend declaration are as follows:


Companies usually announce their final dividends at the close of the fiscal year. It happens after completing an audit of their annual financial reports. This process guarantees that dividend payments are based on accurate financial information.

Decision by shareholders

The final dividend payment demands approval froms shareholcders. They decide the dividend amount together. They also determine how it will be distributed.

Not compulsory

Declaring final dividends is never necessary. The decision to pay a final dividend depends on factors like the company’s financial stability and profits. 

Importance of final dividends

Have you tried to comprehend the significance of the final dividend journal entry? Check that out below:

Return on investment

As an investor, final dividends are a direct reward for your investment. They refer to a portion of the company’s profits distributed to shareholders. These dividends enhance the return on your investment. So, you get a tangible benefit from the company’s success.

Investor confidence

Final dividends demonstrate a company’s financial stability and willingness to share profits with its investors. This can increase investor trust and confidence in the company’s long-term prospects. The knowledge that the company is consistently distributing earnings can entice new investors and encourage existing shareholders to continue supporting the company.

Financial condition indicator

A company’s decision to declare a final dividend is often viewed as a positive indicator of its financial well-being. If a company regularly declares final dividends or gradually increases them over time, it may reflect a profitable and responsibly managed business operation.

Difference between final and interim dividend

If you compare interim dividend vs final dividend, you will find some differences in the approval process. Unlike final dividends, which require shareholder approval at the AGM, interim dividends are approved by the Board of Directors based on estimated profits without shareholder involvement. Final dividends are proposed by the Board and subject to shareholder approval based on audited, full-year financial statements that reflect actual company profits.

CriteriaInterim DividendFinal Dividend
TimingDeclaration happens periodically in a financial year (usually half-yearly)The final dividend declaration happens once in a financial year after all annual accounts are ready.
Based onCompany’s projected or estimated profits Company’s actual profits in a full financial year 
PurposeOffers regular income to shareholdersDistributes remaining profits among shareholders
Profit DistributionThe interim dividend is subtracted from the final profits to determine the final dividendComprises the whole dividend payouts 
Amount It is not a fixed amount because it can increase or decreaseIt is a fixed amount recommended by the board during AGM approval
PaymentPaid out within 1 to 2 months of declarationPaid out within 30 days of AGM approval


Final dividends are referred to as year-end dividends. Unlike a liquidating dividend, this term does not imply the final payment by the company. A liquidating dividend is paid when a company dissolves its operations. It distributes the remaining capital to shareholders after asset sales and debt settlement. You should know that ear-end dividends originate from the company’s operating profits. But liquidating dividends come from the company’s capital base.


How do companies pay the final dividend?

Shareholders typically get dividends as cash. But some companies may offer extra shares of stock instead. The Board of Directors will verify and approve the company’s financial records.. After that, the dividends are paid out as a final step.

What are the significant dates for final dividends?

Several significant dates are crucial for an investor when receiving a final dividend. The primary date to be mindful of is the declaration date, which is when the dividend is officially announced. Following that, the record date is another vital date for any shareholder. This indicates the date by which a shareholder must hold shares in their Demat account to qualify for receiving dividends. The third important date is the ex-record date. This is the date by which an investor must purchase shares to have them credited to their Demat account on or before the record date. Lastly, the payment date is the final date that an investor needs to keep in mind. This is when the dividend is deposited into the bank account.

What is an interim dividend vs final dividend?

The key difference visible is in the timing of their announcement and allocation. Final dividends are announced at the conclusion of a fiscal year, depending on the company’s yearly financial results, and are put forward for endorsement at the AGM. Conversely, interim dividends may be announced at any juncture throughout the financial year, depending on the company’s interim financial outcomes.

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